Food and feed grade Vitamin B12 cyanocobalamin

(Last Updated On: June 23, 2018)

What is Vitamin B12 cyanocobalamin?

Cyanocobalamin is a synthetic form of Vitamin B12. Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is the only type of vitamin that contains metallic elements. There are four types of Vitamin B12: Cyanocobalamin, Hydroxocobalamin, Adenosylcobalamin and Mecobalamin.

The main physiological function of Vitamin B12 is to participate in the manufacturing of bone marrow red blood cells, to prevent pernicious anemia; to prevent the destruction of the brain nerves. We’re cyanocobalamin Manufacturers, Suppliers and Wholesalers in China. We mainly supply food grade and feed grade 1% / 2% / 5% Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin and Methylcobalamin.

Based on our 15 years in food additives & ingredients market, we have a knowledge of China market and manufacturers. We can help our abroad customers save time selecting good manufacturers and update the current market in China.

Another name for Cyanocobalamin

Vitamin B12, Anacobin, Berubigen, Cobalin, Cyanocobalamin, Dobetin, Vibicon

What’s Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin used for?

Cyanocobalamin is a synthesised form of Vitamin B12. It is important for growth, cell reproduction, blood formation, and protein and tissue synthesis. Cyanocobalamin is used to treat Vitamin B12 deficiency in people (also in animals) with pernicious anemia and other conditions.

Four types of Vitamin B12

The human body can only use Methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin directly, which are two active coenzyme forms of vitamin B12 in the body. Other two cobalamins must be converted into these two forms in the cellular organelles first then can be used by the human body. In spite of this difference, this four types vitamin b12 have the same function, and they all can prevent and treat megaloblastic anemia and treat peripheral nerve diseases.

Cyanocobalamin

It is dark red crystals or crystalline powder. Cyanocobalamin functions after converted into methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin in the body. Its stability is the best, and its absorption rate in the body is also the highest among the four. Although it cannot be directly used by the human body, it has the same effect and function with adenosylcobalamin.

Hydroxocobalamin

It is dark red crystals or crystalline powder. Hydroxycobalamin is better in water solubility and slower in urine metabolism, so it is called long-acting cobalamin. Although its absorption rate is lower than cyanocobalamin and methylcobalamin, it can reach a higher concentration in the eye, which is beneficial to relieve visual fatigue and is also a nutrition to the optic nerve, so it has a certain effect on toxic amblyopia in tobacco.

In addition, hydroxocobalamin can rapidly combine with free cyanide in aqueous solution to form non-toxic cyanocobalamin, and it has been approved by many countries for the treatment of known or suspected cyanide poisoning.

Methylcobalamin

It is a bright red needle crystal or crystalline powder. The absorption rate of methylcobalamin in the human body is second to cyanocobalamin. When compared with the other three types of Vitamin B12, it has good transmission of nerve tissue, can promote the metabolism of nucleic acid-protein-lipid and can repair damaged nerve tissue. Clinically, it has obvious curative effect on peripheral nerve diseases such as neurological disorders, multiple neuritis caused by diabetes, especially numbness, pain, and paralysis. In the treatment of peripheral neuropathy, the clinical safety and efficacy of mecobalamin are superior to adenosylcobalamin and cyanocobalamin.

The “Consensus for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in 2013” recommends the use of B vitamins to improve diabetic neuropathy. Methylcobalamin is recommended as an adjuvant therapy for neurotrophic rejuvenation therapy.

Adenosylcobalamin

It is a yellow-orange hexagonal crystal that becomes deep red when exposed to air. Adenosylcobalamin is used internationally as a biochemical reagent and test reagent. At present, only the Chinese Pharmacopoeia takes it as a drug. Adenosylcobalamin has been used in the Chinese market for many years and its role is basically the same as that of the other three types of Vitamin B12. The reference book divides adenosylcobalamin into hematological system drugs. It is used not only for the treatment of megaloblastic anemia, but also for malnutrition anemia, anemia during pregnancy, and leukopenia caused by radiation and chemotherapy drugs. Adenosine cobalamin can increase hemoglobin content in the body, improve anemia, and has a significant effect.

Cyanocobalamin Property

Stability

The stability is not good and will Decomposed when exposed to light. Crimson crystals or crystalline powder, flavorless and tasteless. Easy to absorb moisture. Slightly soluble in water or ethanol. Insoluble in acetone chloroform and ether. The storage should be protected from light.

Cyanocobalamin solubility

Soluble in alcohol, insoluble in acetone and chloroform

Molar mass

1355.38 g/mol

Chemical formula

C63H88CoN14O14P

Chemical Structure

Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin metabolism

Vitamin B12 in food binds with proteins and enters the digestive tract of the human body. With the action of stomach acid, pepsin and trypsin, Vitamin B12 is released and binds with a glycoprotein intrinsic factor (IF) secreted by gastric mucosal cells. The vitamin B12-IF complex is absorbed in the ileum. The storage of vitamin B12 in the body is very small, about 2~3mg in the liver. Mainly excrete from the urine, and also from bile.

Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin food sources

It is made of chemical synthesis from cobalamin and cannot get from natural food. But Foods high in Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) include clams, liver, fish, crab, low-fat beef, fortified cereal, fortified tofu, low-fat dairy, cheese, eggs and so on.

Does Cyanocobalamin contain cyanide?

Yes, Cyanocobalamin contain cyanide. Cyanocobalamin is a form of vitamin B12 which our bodies can convert into B12 (cobalamin) which is found food. Cyanocobalamin functions after converted into methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin in the body. The body does this by wrenching away a cyanide molecule from cyanocobalamin, and letting it loose in the body.

But Don’t be panic. The body can deal with small amounts of cyanide, usually by using sodium thiosulfate, converting the cyanide ions to thiocyanate, which’ll be excreted from body. Cyanocobalamin is safe and used as food additives and can be found in many health supplements.

The safety of cyanocobalamin has raised concerns due to the fact that cyanide is a component of cyanocobalamin, and the cyanide molecule is removed from cyanocobalamin when used by the body’s cells. Cyanide is widely found in nature. Cassava, sorghum, corn, beans, millet, cabbage, flaxseed, bamboo and other plants contain cyanide. Cyanide in edible plants is mostly in the form of cyanide glycosides. There are at least more than 2,000 species of plants that contain this component, of which about 1,000 are core species. People usually eat almonds, bayberry, grape seeds, apple seeds, peaches, plums, and cherries, and their cores contain cyanide.

In addition, small amounts of hydrogen cyanide are also detected in milk, distilled spirits, and fruit and wine products sold on the market; trace amounts of cyanide are also detected in some grains and water.

Cyanocobalamin contains cyanide is safe as the percentage is very little and will be excreted from body.

According to the European Food Safety Authority, “Data of from a Norwegian dietary survey show that the average and high (97.5th percentile) daily intake of [cyanide] among consumers amounts to respectively 95 and 372 micrograms/person or 1.4 and 5.4 micrograms/kg bw/day.” The amount of cyanide in a 1,000 microgram cyanocobalamin is 20 micrograms.

What is the difference between methylcobalamin and cyanocobalamin?

They’re two forms of Vitamin B12. Cyano group at the cobalt is replaced with a methyl group that makes the difference between methylcobalamin and cyanocobalamin. It is somehow difficult to say which is better between methylcobalamin and cyanocobalamin.

Cyanocobalamin and methylcobalamin are the same compound with only one molecule differentiating the two. Cyanocobalamin has a cyanide donor, meaning that a molecule of cyanide is attached to the cobalamin compound. Instead of cyanide, methylcobalamin has a methyl donor attached to the cobalamin compound. Though the difference is small, it can have an impact on your health.

Because cyanocobalamin is cheaper to produce, this type of B12 is most often used and found in Vitamins and dietary supplements. It is not naturally occurring and can only be manufactured through chemical synthesis. As cyanocobalamin contains cyanide, it can not be used directly in the body and must be broken down and converted into methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin.

Function and what does Vitamin B12 cyanocobalamin do?

The most important function of Vitamin B12 is that it is an important substance required for bone marrow hematopoiesis. Vitamin B12 promotes the development and maturation of red blood cells and is well-studied in the synthesis of shouts. The detailed function of cyanocobalamin mainly as follows:

  • Promote the development and maturation of red blood cells, so that the body’s hematopoietic function can be in a normal state, prevent pernicious anemia; maintain the health of the nervous system.
  • Increase the utilization of folic acid and promote the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins;
  • It has the function of activating amino acids and promotes the biosynthesis of nucleic acids, which can promote the synthesis of proteins. It plays an important role in the growth and development of infants and young children.
  • Metabolize fatty acids to make proper use of fats, carbohydrates and proteins.
  • Eliminate irritability, focus, enhance memory and balance.
  • It is an indispensable vitamin for the function of the nervous system. It is involved in the formation of a lipoprotein in nerve tissue.

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which provides scientific advice to assist policy makers, has confirmed that clear health benefits have been established for the dietary intake of vitamin B12 in contributing to:

  • normal red blood cell formation;
  • normal cell division;
  • normal energy metabolism;
  • a normal function of the immune system.

It can increase the availability of folic acid, synthesize methionine (synthesized from homocysteine) and choline with folic acid, and to synthesize cyanocobalamin precursors such as methylcobalamin and coenzyme during the process of producing purines and pyrimidines, involved in the methylation of many important compounds. In the absence of Vitamin B12, the activity of transferring methyl groups from methyltetrahydrofolate is reduced, rendering folic acid an unusable form, leading to folic acid deficiency.

Cyanocobalamin can also maintain the metabolism and function of the nerve myelin. In the absence of Vitamin B12, neurological disorders, degeneration of the spinal cord, and severe psychiatric symptoms can be caused. Vitamin B12 deficiency can cause peripheral neuritis. The early manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency in children are abnormal mood, sluggish expression, unresponsiveness, and eventually anemia.

It can promote the development and maturation of red blood cells. Methylmalonyl-CoA is converted to succinyl-CoA and involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, where succinyl-CoA is involved in the synthesis of heme. The Fourth, vitamin B12 is also involved in the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates and proteins, and the synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins.

Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin deficiency

Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin deficiency can lead to anemia and neurological disorders. The main type of vitamin B12 deficiency anemia is pernicious anemia. Following are the main symptoms with Cyanocobalamin deficiency.

  • Pernicious anemia (insufficiency of red blood cells)
  • Irregular menstruation
  • Yellowing of eyes and skin, localized (very small) redness (no pain or no itching) and accompanied by moulting of skin
  • Nausea, loss of appetite, weight loss
  • White lips, tongue and gums, bleeding gums
  • Headache, memory loss, dementia
  • May cause people’s mental depression
  • Cause nucleated giant cell anemia (pernicious anemia)
  • Spinal cord degeneration, nerve and peripheral nerve degeneration
  • Inflammation of the mucous membranes of the tongue, mouth, and digestive tract
  • The early manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency in children are symptoms such as mental and emotional abnormalities, sluggish expression, less cry, unresponsiveness, love of sleeping, and finally anemia.

How is the Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin metabolism?

Vitamin B12 in food is combined with protein and enters into the digestive tract of the human body. Under the action of stomach acid, pepsin and trypsin, vitamin B12 is released and binds to a glycoprotein intrinsic factor (IF) secreted by gastric mucosal cells. The vitamin B12-IF complex is relatively stable against pepsin and enters the intestine and is absorbed in the ileum due to the ileal vitamin B12-IF receptor. In the presence of free calcium and bicarbonate, it is beneficial to the absorption of vitamin B12. Unbound with the IF from the feces. The maximum dietary intake that can be combined with IF daily and absorbed by the ileal vitamin B12-IF receptor is about 5 μg/d of vitamin B12.

After entering the blood circulation, vitamin B12 binds with plasma proteins and becomes a vitamin B12 transport protein, including transcobalamin I, II, III (TcI, II, III). After the combination of TcII and vitamin B12, it mainly transports to the surface of cells with TcII-vitamin B12-specific receptors, such as liver, kidney, bone marrow, red blood cells, and placenta. In addition to vitamin B12, serum contains analogs of vitamin B12 such as corrinoids and cobalamin that bind to TcI and TcII and are transported to the liver and then discharged from the bile.

Vitamin B12 has a very low storage of about 2 to 3 mg in the body and is mainly stored in the liver. The daily loss is approximately 0.1% of the storage volume, with an average loss of 1.2 to 2.55 μg, which is mainly excreted from the urine and partially excreted from the bile. Vitamin B12 enterohepatic circulation is very important for its re-use and stability in the body, about half of vitamin B12 from the liver through the bile draining the small intestine can be normally reabsorbed, about 0.6 ~ 6μg/d, so even if the diet does not contain vitamins The body of B12 can also be stored for about 6 years without the symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency.

Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin uses

In food use

Vitamin B12 is widely used as a way to enrich cereal products and certain beverages. ‘Dietetic’ foods such as slimming foods and infant formulas are often fortified with vitamins, including B12. Fortification with Vitamin B12 is especially important for products aimed at people with a low dietary intake, such as vegans.

In Medical uses

Cyanocobalamin can also be used in medical:

  • For the treatment and prevention of vitamin B12 deficiency.
  • For gastrectomy or malabsorption syndrome, deficiency of vitamin B12 causes prevention of anemia.
  • It is used to supplement the increased demand for vitamin B12 caused by wasting disease, hyperthyroidism, pregnancy, and breastfeeding.
  • nutritional and pregnancy-related anemia.
  • Cannibalidae anaemia.
  • liver disorder anemia.
  • Radioactivity-induced leukopenia.
  • nerve pain, muscle pain, joint pain.
  • peripheral neuritis, peripheral nerve paralysis.
  • myelitis, spinal degeneration

In feed additives/poultry uses

Vitamin B12 is an indispensable micronutrient for the growth of the animals. The animal feed additives soucing from plants for most animals do not contain Vitamin B12. On the one hand, animals rely on microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract for synthesis B12. On the another hand, animals take Vitamin B12 from feed additives. Vitamin supplements must be added to meet the animal’s vitamin needs. As cyanocobalamin Manufacturers, Suppliers and Wholesalers in China. Our main customers buy Vitamin B12 is in feed industry and we mainly supply food grade and feed grade 1% / 2% / 5% Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin and Methylcobalamin.

The lack of Vitamin B12 in non-ruminant animals such as pigs and chickens is mainly due to stagnation of growth and development, and a few pigs may develop mild normal red cell anemia. In addition, the hatching rate of chickens and the reproductive rate of pigs can also be reduced with the deficiency of vitamin B12. The clinical symptoms of deficiency include loss of appetite, stagnation, anemia, and severe neurological symptoms.

Feed grade vitamin B12 can promote the growth and development of poultry, especially young poultry.

Feed grade Cyanocobalamin can be used:

  • The deficiency of vitamin B12 caused pig and chicken growth and development and anemia.
  • The local emaciated diseases of cattle and sheep in the areas deficient in cobalt;
  • Non-specific treatment of neuritis, neuralgia, etc.
  • Improve the utilization of feed protein;
  • Economic animal rearing;
  • Treatment of fish eggs or fry with B12 solution can increase the tolerance of fish to toxic substances such as benzene and heavy metals in water.

Cosmetic uses

Vitamin B12 is generally known as a hematopoietic vitamin and has a superior effect of skin regeneration. Both of cell regeneration and hematopoiesis are indispensable to it, and it is an important component for promoting human metabolism. Vitamin B12 is the newest type of vitamin. It is the last to be discovered for all vitamins. The molecular composition is the most complex. Vitamin B12 content in the human body will gradually decrease with age, especially women will reduce their physiological structure faster.

Easily solve the following skin problems:

*Fatigue, dull, dry and other skin problems;

* Clearly diminishes the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles due to age;

* Repair skin redness, peeling and pain caused by sun exposure, dry autumn and winter cold, etc.;

* Acne scars, scars from mosquito bites, scars from burns and scalds;

* Use after plastic surgery to avoid scars.

Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin Side effects

Is cyanocobalamin safe?

It is safe but possible side effects of cyanocobalamin injection include allergic reactions such as hives, difficult breathing; redness of the face; swelling of the arms, hands, feet, ankles or lower legs; extreme thirst; and diarrhoea. Less-serious side effects may include headache, dizziness, leg pain, itching, or rash.

Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanocobalamin

Is cyanocobalamin bad for you?

The most common form of vitamin B-12 (cyanocobalamin) in supplements is cyanocobalamin and although this form includes a cyanide molecule, it is very safe. Why? Even at a very high dose, it would provide about a thousand times less cyanide than is toxic, and the cyanide is excreted in the urine. Cyanocobalamin has a molecular weight of 1355, of which the cyanide part is about 1.9. It is not bad for us as our body can wrenching away a cyanide molecule from cyanocobalamin, and letting it loose in the body.

Cyanocobalamin overdose

Vitamin B12 is the least required amount in the human body every day. Overdose vitamin B12 produces toxic side effects. It has been reported that overdose of vitamin B12 may cause allergic reactions such as asthma, urticaria, eczema, facial edema, chills, etc. It may also be related to nervous excitement, precordial pain, and palpitation. Too much vitamin B12 intake can also lead to the lack of folic acid.

Cyanocobalamin toxicity symptoms

Human Toxicity Excerpts:
Vitamin B12 is usually nontoxic even in large doses; however, mild transient diarrhea, peripheral vascular thrombosis, itching, transitory exanthema, urticaria, feeling of swelling of the entire body, anaphylaxis, and death have been reported. Although allergic reactions to vitamin B12 have generally been attributed to impurities in the preparation, a few patients have reacted positively to skin testing with purified cyanocobalamin

Reference:https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/a?dbs+hsdb:@term+@DOCNO+2850

Cyanocobalamin in pregnancy

It should not be used during pregnancy unless the benefit outweighs the risk to the fetus. (AU)

AU TGA pregnancy category: Exempt
US FDA pregnancy category: C

Comments:
-Vitamin B12 needs are increased in pregnancy.
-Megaloblastic anemia of pregnancy is usually due to folic acid deficiency.
-Do not use for megaloblastic anemia of pregnancy due to folic acid deficiency.

Cyanocobalamin in breastfeeding

Use is not recommended; benefit to mother should outweigh risk to the infant. (AU)

Excreted into human milk: Yes

Comments:
-Vitamin B12 needs are increased in lactation.
-Deficiency has been seen in breast fed children of vegetarian mothers, even with no symptoms of maternal deficiency.
-Four micrograms daily of B12 are recommended during lactation.

Reference: https://www.drugs.com/pregnancy/cyanocobalamin.html

Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin market

Market demand increase in vitamin nutrition

We think the market demand of Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin will increase. On the one hand, the demand for vitamins and nutritious foods and health products supplemented with various vitamins will increase. On the other hand, the consumption of meat, poultry, eggs, milk and other foods will continue to increase. Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin is an important feed additive. It is a necessary biological catalyst for the growth and development of livestock and poultry. It affects many factors in the growth and development of livestock and poultry, such as weight gain, feed conversion, meat production, meat quality, fur, reproductive capacity, and exercise systems.

Market demand increase in poultry

With the growing market of poultry and livestock, the growth rate of feed production has been astonishing. Generally the amount of VB12 used in feed additives was very small. Recently, the amount of VB12 has increased substantially year by year. There is still a lot of room for development in the future.

Main importer market

In addition to medical use (including OTC drugs), VB12 is also widely used in animal feeds, nutritional supplements, and food fortifiers, such as vitamin fortified flour, reconstituted foods, and baby foods. In the U.S. market, VB12 medical use accounted for 40%, feed use accounted for 36%, and food use accounted for 24%.

At present, China’s VB12 has been exported to more than 100 countries and regions around the world. The United States, India, Europe, and ASEAN are the major export destinations. The top 10 countries and regions in terms of export volume are the United States, India, Germany, Singapore, Bangladesh, Taiwan, Spain, Indonesia, Japan, and Mexico. The U.S. is the largest importer of VB12 from China, with exports accounting for nearly 60% of the total, and India and Germany also accounting for about 10% of exports.

In 2002, the country’s VB12 exports earned 24 million U.S. dollars. In 2010, the export value was 65 million U.S. dollars, and the export volume in 2011 was 77 million U.S. dollars. In 2013, the export value was US$85.78 million. In 2015, exports exceeded the $100 million mark and reached $118.96 million. In 2016, the export volume reached 332 tons, an increase of 31% over the same period of last year, and the export value was US$142.64 million, an increase of 19.9% ​​year-on-year, both reaching a record high. From January to April 2017, VB12 exported 116 tons, an increase of 19.6% year-on-year, with an export value of 51.56 million USD and an average export price of 444/kg USD.

China is the big food and feed grade Folic acid manufacturers and export country in the world. China manufactures’ market takes around 90%.

Where to buy Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin?

You can buy food or feed grade Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin from us, Specification complies with CP2010/USP35/EP6.0/BP2010 standard. As a Folic acid manufacturer and supplier, we sell food and feed grade 1% / 2% / 5% Vitamin B12 Cyanocobalamin

We’re committed to the quality and safety of our ingredients. We know that our customers expect us to use only the highest quality food additives & ingredients with better price, and we do everything we can to satisfy those expectations.

Usage: feed additives, food additives, pharmaceuticals and healthy foods

Vitamin B12 Feed grade

Standard: CP2010/USP35/EP6.0/BP2010
Specification: 1% 2% 5%
Packing: 20kg/carton 25kg/drum
Carrier: Corn starch, Calcium Carbonate
Character: Pale red powder, easy to absorb moisture
Function:
1.Promote livestock and poultry generated, used as feed additive of livestock and poultry nutrition.
2.Growth retardation, low transformed efficiency of feed. Pellagra, infectious dermatitis, poor fledging.
3.Low rate of incubation, high rate of dead embryos. Breeding difficulty of sows .It can meet the need for VB12 of fish and shrimp, prevent from deficiency in VB12 and from irritability, enhance disease-resistant ability, facilitate the transformation of nutrient in feed, and improve growth rate, survival rate and reproduction rate.
Shelf life: 2 years

Vitamin B12 Food grade

Standard: CP2010/USP35/EP6.0/BP2010
Specification: 1% 2% 5%
Packing:  20kg/carton 25kg/drum
Carrier: Corn starch, Mannitol, Lactose, Di-calcium Phosphate
Character:  Pale red powder, easy to absorb moisture
Shelf life:  2 years

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