What is Menadione?
Menadione, also known as Vitamin K3, is a synthetic version of Vitamin K. Commonly in the form of Menadione Sodium Bisulfate (MSB) and Menadione Nicotinamide Bisulfite (MNB) used widely as feed additives in animal and poultry such as in dog and cat food.
Vitamin K3 or Menadione is a parent compound for the whole group of Vitamin K and their derivatives. Vitamin K1 and K2 are naturally occurring. Vitamin K is a group of compounds that are needed for the synthesis of certain proteins that help control bleeding. It is widely used as nutritional supplement for animal and poultry feed.
Menadione molecular weight: 172.18 g·mol−1
Menadione solubility: insoluble in water
What is Menadione Sodium Bisulfite?
Menadione sodium bisulfite is a water-soluble form of Menadione. It is also called Vitamin K3 MSB. Menadione sodium bisulfite complex is simply a source of vitamin K, a fat soluble vitamin.
Molecular Formula: C11H9NaO5S•nH2O
Appearance: White or ivory white crystalline powder
Molecular Weight : M=294.33(n=1),312.34(n=2),330.36(n=3)
Menadione Sodium Bisulfite structure:
How does Menadione Sodium Bisulfite benefit animals?
Menadione Sodium Bisulfite benefits blood clotting. Menadione Sodium Bisulfite is used as an inexpensive Vitamin K3 supplement in commercial foods. Pet food manufacturers who useMenadione Sodium Bisulfite in their products claim that it is “more stable” than natural Vitamin K and has “more nutritional value”.
Function and the role of Vitamin K3 MSB in blood clotting
Vitamin k3 MSB Menadione Sodium Bisulfite is essential for the life of animals, which takes the role in the synthesis of hepatic prothrombin in the liver, takes a unique hemostatic effect and simultaneously prevents the animals from the weakness and subcutaneous hemorrhage.
Vitamin k3 MSB Menadione Sodium Bisulfite can reduce the bleeding and accelerate the recovery of wound and promote wrinkled chicken growth before or after beak breaking. It can relieve or even avoid the toxicity reaction when taking with Sulfa Drugs; It can also enhance diseases prevention by taking with anti-coccidian drug, white diarrhea and fowl cholera. With stress factors, the use of Menadione Sodium Bisulfite can relieve or even remove the stressful condition of animals while improving the effect of feeding.
Menadione Sodium Bisulfite uses
Vitamin k3 MSB Menadione sodium bisulfite is especially important in certain species of animals, which cannot produce Menadione in their metabolisms; poultry, pigs and aquatic animals. Demand for Vitamin k3 MSB is growing annually, as the feeding of livestock and animal (such as dog and cat) continues to grow.
Menadione Sodium Bisulfite Specification
MSB96: content of menadione ≥50.0%
Recommended dosage in livestock and aquatic animals
Recommended dosage in the formula of feed for livestock: MSB96: 2-10g per ton of compound feed.
Recommended dosage in the formula feed for aquatic animals: MSB96: 4-32g per ton of compound feed.
Packaging & Storage
Packaging: 25kg/carton net, inner plastic bag.
Storage: Store in dry, cool and dark places.
Shelf life: 12 months. Once the original cartons have been opened, please use the goods within a short period.
What problems will occur if Vitamin K3 MSB Menadione Sodium Bisulfite Deficient?
When MSB Menadione Sodium Bisulfite is deficient or at low level, the blood vessel ruptures, causing excessive internal hemorrhage, depletion of the liver, and possible g-sac erosion. Embryos from vitamin-deficient chickens have high mortality due to late hemorrhage at hatching. Providing adequate Menadione sodium bisulfite levels in the feed and use antibiotics and sulfonamides in case of lack. (general requirements 5 to 7 grams per ton of compound feed)
Menadione Sodium Bisulfite Side effects
Although Menadione Sodium Bisulfite is consider safe in pet foods, but there are some side effects. The controversy over Menadione appears to be driven by two opposing views.
The three most common Vitamin K found in pet foods are:
Vitamin K1 – naturally found in green leafy vegetables
Vitamin K2 – produced by bacteria living inside a dog’s gut
Vitamin K3 – menadione, the man-made synthetic version
Supporters who think Menadione Sodium Bisulfite safe think menadione as a necessary supplement that pet foods manufacturers should include in their recipes because:
- Natural vitamin K may lose its potency during processing
- Intestinal disease can prevent gut bacteria from making the vitamin
- Not all manufacturers include green leafy vegetables in their recipes
It may has following side effects:
- Inflammation of the walls of a vein
- Facial flushing
- Cardiovascular collapse
- Severe shock-like reactions
- Injection site reactions
- Chest constriction
- Shortness of breath
- Bluish discoloration of the skin
Menadione Sodium Bisulfite Market
Menadione Sodium Bisulfite manufacturers
The main role of Vitamin K3 is to promote the formation of prothrombin, accelerate coagulation, maintain normal clotting time, and is an indispensable nutritional additive for animal growth and development. China production occupies the absolute leading position in the world. In 2016, the production of global Vitamin K3 manufacturers was around 5,730 tons. China takes around 70-80% of total market.
China is the big Menadione Sodium Bisulfite manufacturers and export country in the world.
There are several Menadione Sodium Bisulfite manufacturers in China and abroad, as you know, the price of China suppliers can be better than abroad manufacturers. We have worked with China top manufacturer for years, we would like to recommend our selected Menadione Sodium Bisulfite manufacturers to you if you would like to save your purchasing cost with the same quality compared with abroad manufacturers. Menadione Sodium Bisulfite Samples are available if you need it for further test.
Menadione Sodium Bisulfite price trend
As you May know, the price of Menadione Sodium Bisulfite has increased much since 2017 and now decreased a little compared with 2017.
The waste pollution is serious duringMenadione Sodium Bisulfite manufacturing process, and the heavy pressure from government has boosted the cost of environmental protection. The important raw material of Vitamin K3 is erythrosin sodium (sodium dichromate), and the production process is mainly based on liquid phase oxidation method. That is, in acidic medium, sodium naphthenate is used to oxidize methyl naphthalene to obtain menaquinone, followed by sulfonylurea.
The process of manufacturing and refining vitamin K3 produces a large amount of chromium-containing waste liquid during the production process. The chromium-containing waste liquor produced in the early vitamin K3 production process was not thoroughly treated, causing environmental pollution. With the gradual increase in environmental protection inspection efforts, vitamin K3 chromium wastewater is facing greater pressure in environmental supervision due to its high pollution characteristics. In order to meet emission standards, Vitamin K3 producers are faced with the environmental protection costs of upgrading waste water treatment equipment to improve waste processing standards.
The increase in raw material prices has pushed up production costs. Chromium ore and sodium erythrosin have a great influence on the production cost of vitamin K3. Since October 2016, the international procurement quotations of Vitamin K3 raw chromium ore continued to rise and fell after peaking at the end of 2016. However, in August 2017, the quotation was still significantly higher than the price quoted in early 2016. The chromium ore (crude powder) imported from India, Turkey and South Africa CIF prices rose sharply (India’s offer rose 45.45%, Turkey’s offer rose 55.56%, South Africa’s offer rose 136%). The shortage of supply led to an increase in the market price of chromium ore, which indirectly increased the price of Vitamin K3.
Where to buy Menadione Sodium Bisulfite?
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