Pectin E440

What is Pectin E440?

Pectin definition

Pectin E440 is defined as a polymer containing galacturonic acid units (at least 65%). The acid groups commonly combines with methanol as a methyl ester, or combines with sodium, potassium, calcium or ammonium as salts, and amide groups may also be present in some pectins. Pectin E440 is a white to light brown powder, extracted from fruits used in food as a gelling agent, thickener, stabilizer in jams, jellies, dessert fillings, fruit juices and milk drinks and so on. As a apple and citrus peel Pectin manufacturer & supplier in China, we would like to give you more information about Pectin from our understanding.

Pectin in plant

Pectin is a natural component located in the plant cell walls. Natural pectin substances are a component of the cell wall. They are present along with cellulose and constitute an adjoining layer in the middle of the cell, allowing the cells of the plant tissue to bind tightly together.

Natural pectin substances are widely present in the fruits, roots, stems and leaves of plants in the form of protopectin, pectin and pectic acid.

Pectin is a linear polysaccharide polymer containing from several hundred to about 1000 anhydrogalluronic acid residues with a corresponding average relative molecular weight of 50,000 to 150,000.

Pectin is a soluble dietary fibre, Part of galluronic acids are present as methyl ester.

Pectin is obtained by aqueous extraction of the appropriate edible plant materials, mainly from citrus peel or apple pomace, followed by a selective precipitation using alcohol or salts.

What does pectin E440 do?

In plant, Natural Pectin is playing a control the flow of fluid in the important role of water and plants.

In food, Pectin is used as a gelling agent, thickener or stabilizer. Sometimes it is called gelling agent pectin, gelling agent fruit pectin or pectin stabilizer.

Where does pectin E440 come from?

Pectin is mainly extracted from citrus fruits and vegetables. Pectin amount in fruits varies from the type of fruit. The major raw material used for the production of industrial product is apple and dried citrus peel which is available in white and light brown powder commercially.

Which fruit contains high/low pectin E440?

High pectin fruits: lime, lemon, orange, and apple.

Average pectin fruits: apricot and blackberry.

Low pectin fruits: cherry, peach, and pineapple.

In the citrus fruits (orange, lemon, and lime), pectin is mainly located in the albedo, the inner white layer of the peel that surrounds the juicy vesicles, and the lamellae. When the juice is extracted from the fruit, the peel and the albedo can be used to make the pectin.

Pectin Classification

There are different types of pectin E440 in the market, commonly classified as three types: High methoxyl pectin, Low methoxyl pectin and Amidated Low Methoxyl Pectin.

High methoxyl pectin

The ratio of esterified to non-esterified galacturonic acid determines the behavior of pectin in food applications. More than 50% galacturonic acid are combined with methanol named as High methyl ester Pectin or HM Pectin.

High methoxyl Pectin structure

Pectin produced by the normal extraction process contains more than 50% of methoxyl groups and is classified as high methoxyl (HM) pectin. HM Pectin forms gels in aqueous systems with high contents of soluble solids (higher than 65%) and low pH values 2.0 – 3.8.

High methyl ester Pectin can be used in high sugar jams, jellies, and beverages. HM pectin can be divided into rapid set, medium rapid set and slow set pectin depending on the setting time and temperature.

Gels made with HM pectins have a firm and short structure, and are clear, with a good flavor release. These gels are not heated reversible.

Lower methoxyl pectin

less than 50% galacturonic acid are combined with methanol named as Low methyl ester Pectin or LM Pectin.

Low methoxyl Pectin structure

LM pectin forms gels in the presence of polyvalent cations, typically calcium (minimum quantity 15 mg Ca++ / g pectin). LM pectin forms gel over a wide range of pH, from 2.6 to 7.0, and with a soluble solid content between 10 – 70%.

The higher the solids level and the lower the pH, the pectin is more reactive.The higher the calcium content and lower the pH, the higher the setting temperature. Low methoxyl Pectin can be sued in organic jams and bakery jams.

Amidated Low Methoxyl Pectin

Amidated pectin (LMA) is a low methoxyl pectin obtained from high methoxyl pectin when ammonia is used in the alkaline de-esterification process. The degree of methoxylation (DE) and the degree of amidation (DA) determine the calcium reactivity of this pectin. LMA pectin form spreadable, shear reversible gels in hot and cold conditions.

LMA pectins are typically standardized according to the gel strength, setting temperature and calcium reactivity.

Amidatedlow methoxyl pectin can be used in low sugar jams, fruit preparations and reversible jellies in hot and cold conditions.

How is pectin made or how to extract pectin?

Process details vary between different companies, but the general process is as follows:

The pectin factory receives apple residue (pomace) or citrus peel from a number of juice producers. In most cases this material has been washed and dried so it can be transported and stored without spoilage.
If the raw material is dry, it can be assessed and selected from store as required for different purposes. If wet citrus peel is used, it has to be used as received, as it deteriorates very rapidly.
The raw material is added to hot water containing a processing aid (usually a mineral acid, although others such as enzymes could be used).
Water alone will only extract a very limited amount of pectin.
After time to extract the pectin, the remaining solids are separated, and the solution clarified and concentrated by removing some of the water.
The solids can be separated by filter, centrifuge, or other means. The solution is then filtered again to clarify it if necessary.
Either directly, or after some further holding time to modify the pectin, the concentrated liquid is mixed with an alcohol to precipitate the pectin.
The pectin can be partly de-esterified at this stage, or earlier or later in the process..
The precipitate is separated, washed with more alcohol to remove impurities, and dried.
The alcohol wash may contain salts or alkalis to convert the pectin to a partial salt form (sodium, potassium, calcium, ammonium)
The alcohol (usually isopropanol) is recovered very efficiently, and reused to precipitate further pectin.
Before or after drying, the pectin may be treated with ammonia to produce an amidated pectin if required.
Amidated pectins are preferred for some applications.
The dry solid is ground to a powder, tested, and blended with sugar or dextrose to a standard gelling power like 150° Sag using the IPPA-Sag-method or other functional property such as viscosity or stabilising power.
Pectins are also sold blended with other approved food additives for use in specific products.

Source from IPPA.

E440 Pectin benefits

What does pectin do for the body?

Pectin is a valuable water soluble dietary fiber. Pectin can lower blood fat, cholesterol, anti-radiation, heavy metal ions, laxative and anti-cancer effects. Pectin can also help weight loss as it is a fiber, people can feel full after eating it. At present, products that use pectin have been used in domestic medicines and health products, such as pectin secreting gastric bowel from laxatives, which is used to remove the body’s heavy metals, lead, etc. Different with other dietary fibers, the pectin’s structural characteristics make it have good water solubility and high viscosity, can absorb heavy metals and other cations and toxins, promote gastrointestinal motility, and can be fermented by the intestinal flora in the large intestine to produce short The fatty acids in the chain lower the intestinal p H value, kill harmful bacteria, and promote the proliferation of beneficial bacteria.

E440 Pectin property


light yellowish powder. No smell, soluble in 20 times the water is in a viscous liquid.

What is the function of pectin

Function as gelling agent, thickening and stabilizing in food.


Pectin must be completely dissolved to ensure full utilization and to avoid heterogeneous gel formation. Any lumps formed during the preparation of the solution leads to loss of gel strength because the pectin lumps are not active. To produce a good pectin solution it is recommended that the pectin is pre-blended with sugar in the minimum ratio of 1:3 and dissolved preferably in hot water (85 – 90°C), at a soluble solids content below 20% using a suitable high-speed stirrer. Pectin will not dissolve in media where gelling conditions exist.

Storage stability

Pectin should be stored in a cool dry environment. At increased temperatures, above ambient, the degradation of pectin will occur due to the reduction of molecular weight. The optimal pH for pectin is between 2.8 and 4.7.


Pectin solutions show lower viscosity compared to other thickening agents. Polyvalent salts (such as Ca++ and Mg++) increase the viscosity of LM pectin solutions. In calcium-free solutions the viscosity drops when the acidity is increased.

E440 Pectin Gelation Mechanism

Different types of pectin, different behavior of gelation.

The optimal conditions for gelation of the different types of pectin are shown in the table below.

Parameters HM pectin LM pectin
Degree of methoxylation (DM) > 50% < 50%
Soluble solid content (%) ≥ 65% 10 – 70%
pH 2.0 – 3.8 2.6 – 7.0
Bivalent ions, Ca++ (mg/g) ≥ 15


E440 Pectin use & application

Pectin can be used as a gelling agent, thickening and stabilizing properties makes it an essential food additive in the production of many food products.

Traditionally, pectin was primarily used in the production of jams and fruit jellies.

How to use pectin E440?

How to Dissolve: mix pectin with five fine sugar, stir slowly in the warm water (85 ℃), heated to boiling until completely dissolved. When soluble pectin, the time should not be too long at high temperatures. Generally speaking, it should be dissolved in 8 minutes to complete. You must stir quickly to prevent caking if dissolved incompletely there would a lump.

Pectin Used as a gelling agent: after high ester pectin dissolved, adding citric acid, tartaric acid, etc., adjust the PH 2.8 to 4.2, total soluble solids (sugar) more than 65% is preferred. If for low ester pectin, add a small amount of bivalent cation (calcium gluconate, calcium lactate, calcium chloride, etc.) after dissolving it, adjust PH value from 2.8 to 6.5, total soluble solids (sugar) from 10% to 55% is preferred.

Pectin Used as a thickener: dissolve pectin until it becomes a viscous liquid thickener, according to product requirements, increase or decrease dosage of pectin.

High methoxyl pectin uses

  • In Jam & Jelly: Pectin used in Jam & Jelly can make the finished product delicate, full of elasticity and toughness, increase the aroma, make the mouthfeel smooth and refreshing, dosage reference in Jam &Jelly: 0.3%-0.6%.
  • In ice cream: Pectin used in ice cream, function as Emulsification stability, the finished product taste delicate, smooth. Dosage reference In ice cream: 0.1%-0.2%.
  • In Yogurt, Lactobacillus, Fruit Juice and drink: Pectin in yogurt, fruit juice, drinks, function as Stabilizes and thickens, can prolong the shelf life of products, has a natural fruit flavor, dosage reference in yogurt: 0.1% -0.3%.
  • In Baked foods: improve the permeability of the dough, enhance the taste and extend the shelf life. Dosage Reference: 0.3%-0.8% of flour in baked foods.

Rapid Set pectin – traditionally used for jams and marmalades

Slow Set Pectin – used for jellies and for some jams and preserves, especially using vacuum cooking at lower temperatures. Also important for higher sugar products like bakery and biscuit jams, sugar confectionery, etc.

Stabilising Pectins – used for stabilising acidic protein products such as yoghurts, whey and soya drinks against heat processing.

Low methyl ester and amidated pectins uses

Used in a wide range of lower sugar products, reduced sugar preserves, fruit preparations for yoghurts, dessert gels and toppings, and savoury applications such as sauces and marinades. Can also be used in low acid high sugar products such as preserves containing low acid fruits (figs, bananas) and confectionery.

E440 Pectin side effects

Pectin dangers

Although pectin is generally recognized as safe, it may have dangers or side effects. When taken by mouth alone or in combination with guar gum and insoluble fiber (the combination used to lower cholesterol and other blood fats), pectin can cause stomach cramps, diarrhea, gas, and loose stools.

Pectin E440 allergy

If you’re allergy to pectin, first you should avoid as fruits contain high amount pectin, such as apples, Pears, oranges and other citrus fruits, cherries, grapes, and strawberries and so on.

Is pectin E440 safe during pregnancy?

Most probably, it’s safe to consume pectin while pregnant for small amounts in products like jams, jellies, and other foods where pectin presents. There is no scientific research or evidence to suggest that pregnant women need to avoid the small amounts of pectin in food.

Is pectin E440 safe?

Pectin is generally regarded as a safe food substance. Its composition and use is regulated under food additive law in the EU, and it is GRAS in the USA. It is also included in the International Codex Alimentarius. Particular references include:

FAO/WHO – Codex Alimentarius

Pectins have been given an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of “not specified” by the FAO/WHO Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), and are listed on that basis in the Codex General Standard for Food Additives.

European Union

Pectin (E440 (i)) and Amidated Pectin (E440 (ii)) have both been given an ADI “not specified” by the Scientific Committee for Food. Specifications are listed in Commission Directive 98/86/EC of 11th November 1998, published in Volume 41, Issue L334 of the Official Journal. Pectins may be used under “quantum satis” conditions in most foods.

United States

The FDA recognizes pectin as GRAS (generally recognized as safe). It may be used in all non-standardized foods and in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations (21CFR 184.1588).


The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare recognizes pectin under The Japan’s Specifications and Standards for Food Additives.

In other countries, food legislative authorities generally recognize pectin as an important and safe food  substance. Where regulated, permitted use levels are generally in accordance with “Good Manufacturing Practice.”

Pectin market

Pectin market forecast

Increasing health concerns and growing usages of healthy & organic raw materials for producing edible products is expected to drive the market in the foreseeable period.

Pectin is used as a gelling & thickening agent and stabilizer in a broad range of fruit products, such as marmalades, fruit-based preparations for yogurts & desserts and bakery products. It is also used in confectionery such as jam & jellies to give them a gel structure. Major advantages of adding it in food and other products are it reduces cooking time, improves texture & color, and increases the shelf life. It is also widely used in pharmaceuticals industry for wound healing preparations and specialty medical adhesives.

Pectin E440 manufacturers

China is the big Pectin ex apple and dried citrus peel manufacturers and export country in the world.

There are several Pectin manufacturers in China and abroad, as you know, the price of China suppliers can be better than abroad manufacturers. We have worked with China top manufacturer for years, we would like to recommend our selected Pectin suppliers to you if you would like to save your purchasing cost with the same quality compared with abroad manufacturers. Pectin Samples are available if you need it for further test after accept the price.

Pectin E440 price

As you know, there are different types of Pectinin the market:High methoxyl pectin, Low methoxyl pectin and Amidated Low Methoxyl Pectin. the price is based on different types. Please contact us if you need a price idea.

Where to buy Pectin E440

All the products listed in our website are from the manufacturers we have worked together for many years. The professional working experience backup our confidence to their quality. We can supply Pectin E440 for many Specifications and we can be your suppliers in China.

By using the appropriate Pectin E440 types in your food, the formulator can create suitable products with good gelling agent, thickener and stabilizer.

We’re committed to the quality and safety of our ingredients. We know that our customers expect us to use only the highest quality and healthiest ingredients available, and we do everything we can to satisfy those expectations. We feel confident in our choice to choose top Pectin E440 manufacturer brand.

If you have any other questions, please email us through:

High/Low Methoxyl Pectin E440 Specification

Specification High Methoxyl Pectin Low Methoxyl Pectin
Sr No. Test Description Limits Limits
1 Loss on drying Max 12% Max 12%
2 Acid Insoluble Ash Max 1% Max 1%
3 Free Methyl Alcohol Max 1% Max 1%
4 SO2 Content Max 50 ppm Max 50 ppm
5 Galacturonic Acid Min 65% Min 65%
6 Degree of Esterification > 50% < 50%
7 Arsenic Max 3 ppm Max 3 ppm
8 Lead Max 5 ppm Max 5 ppm
9 Jelly grade 150 ± 5 100

Our pectins are perfect for jams and marmalades, beverages (fruit juices, fruit drinks, milk drinks), confectionery (fruit jellies and candies) and fruit preparations (such as yogurts, bakery fillings, coatings and glazings).

Pectin E440 FAQ

Is pectin natural?

HM pectin is natural, LH pectin and Amidated low Methoxyl pectin may not.

Does apple juice have pectin?

Yes, pectin present in the apple fruit and peel.

Is pectin a protein?


Do pears have pectin?


Is pectin sugar?


Is pectin a preservative?


Fruit pectin gluten free?

Yes, it is gluten free.

Is pectin a fiber?

Yes, Pectin is a type of water-soluble fiber found in a variety of fruits and vegetables.

Is pectin the same as gelatin?


Is pectin the same as citric acid?


Apple pectin vs citrus pectin?



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