Sodium Citrate E331(i) is used to enhance flavor and maintain stability of active ingredients in dairy products and carbonated drinks. Though Sodium Citrate E331(i) is considered safe, some are convinced it has potentially dangerous health effects.
What Is Sodium Citrate E331(i)?
Sodium Citrate E331(i) is a white granular crystal or a crystalline powder that is odorless with a slightly acidic taste. Sodium Citrate is used in the food and beverage industry as a flavoring agent, acidity regulator, and stabilizer. Sodium Citrate E331(i) is used in ice cream, to prevent fat globules from sticking together. Sodium Citrate E331(i) is also used to regulate the pH level of soft drinks, and as an emulsifier for oils when making cheese.
Possible Side Effects of Sodium Citrate E331(i)
Though Sodium Citrate E331(i) is regarded as safe supplement, there maybe some side effects:
Stop using this medication and call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects:
- swelling, tingling, or numbness in your hands or feet;
- muscle twitching or pain, leg pain or cramps;
- unusual weakness, rapid and shallow breathing, fast or slow heart rate, dizziness, confusion, or mood changes;
- feeling restless, nervous, or irritable;
- black, bloody, or tarry stools;
- severe or ongoing diarrhea; or
- seizure (convulsions).
Less serious side effects of citric acid /
- nausea, or vomiting, stomach pain;
- mild or occasional diarrhea; or
- mild stomach pain.
GRAS Affirmation: Yes
Generally recognized as safe (GRAS) is an American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) designation that a chemical or substance added to food is considered safe by experts, and so is exempted from the usual Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) food additive tolerance requirements. Sodium Citrate E331(i) is considered safe.
Special Populations Precaution
There is a lot of concern about diet and nutrition for these population, like Newborns, children, pregnant, sensitive to Sodium Citrate populations. Better consult to your doctor if you would like to intake Sodium Citrate E331(i).
1. Loss of antimicrobial effect of trisodium citrate due to ‘lock’ spillage from haemodialysis catheters. [Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2014 Apr] Author: Schilcher G, Schneditz D, Ribitsch W, Horina JH, Hoenigl M, Valentin T, Rosenkranz AR, Krause R.
2. Facile synthesis of alumina hollow microspheres via trisodium citrate-mediated hydrothermal process and their adsorption performances for p-nitrophenol from aqueous solutions. [J Colloid Interface Sci. 2013 Mar 15] Author: Zhou J, Wang L, Zhang Z, Yu J.
3. Incompatibility of contrast medium and trisodium citrate. [Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2013 Feb] Author: Delcour C, Bruninx G.
4. Evaluation of interparticle interaction between colloidal Ag nanoparticles coated with trisodium citrate and safranine by using FRET: spectroscopic and mechanistic approach. [J Photochem Photobiol B. 2012 Aug 1] Author: Mokashi VV, Gore AH, Sudarsan V, Rath MC, Han SH, Patil SR, Kolekar GB.
5. Trisodium citrate induced protein precipitation in haemodialysis catheters might cause pulmonary embolism. [Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012 Jul] Author: Schilcher G, Scharnagl H, Horina JH, Ribitsch W, Rosenkranz AR, Stojakovic T, Polaschegg HD.