Biotin is a water-soluble B-vitamin, also called vitamin B7 and formerly known as vitamin H or coenzyme R. Biotin is often used in dietary supplements, baby foods, and dietetic products.Though it’s considered safe, some are convinced it has potentially dangerous health effects.
What Is D-Biotin?
D-Biotin is used as a dietary supplement. It acts as a coenzyme during the metabolism of protein, fats, and carbohydrates. It helps maintain healthy skin and hair, and is a necessary material for growth, digestion, and muscle function.
Possible Side Effects of D-Biotin
Although D-Biotin generally regarded as a very safe and effective supplement, there can be some minor side effects. The side effects may:
- Acne. Getting too much biotin in your system increases your risk of developing cystic acne on the chin and jawline. The reason why this occurs is unknown, but it is found that the acne fades a few weeks after you stop using biotin supplements. Make sure you take doses of biotin that are less than 2500 mcg or less each day and drink plenty of water while using biotin supplements to reduce your risk of developing cystic acne. You may need to experiment with different doses until you find the amount that works best with your skin.
- Allergies. Allergic reactions to biotin are not common, but they are still possible. People that have known allergies to vitamin B12 cobalamin or cobalt tend to be allergic to biotin as well. If you are suffering from an allergic reaction to biotin you may feel nausea, develop an itchy rash, tightness or pain in your chest and swelling of the throat and face. If you start to develop these symptoms call your doctor for help immediately as some of these developments can be fatal.
- Miscarriage. If you are taking high doses of biotin while you are trying to get pregnant it can increase your risk of suffering a miscarriage. The reasoning behind this is not clear, and no tests have been performed on humans to better determine the likelihood of this risk. Talk to a medical professional before taking biotin while pregnant to ensure your safety.
- Interactions. Biotin negatively interacts with anti-seizure medications and medications that help lower cholesterol, causing these medications to work less effectively. While biotin is helpful in regulating your metabolism and blood sugar levels, it can have a distinct effect on the overall blood glucose level in your body. If you are taking medications like cholesterol medication or anticonvulsants or treating a condition like diabetes, taking biotin can have an impact on your symptoms. It is rare that people have a life-threatening experience while taking biotin. There is only one recorded case where a woman that suffered from heart and lung condition known as eosinophilic pleuropericardial effusion developed life threatening conditions while taking vitamins B5 and B7 at high doses. After she stopped using these supplements her symptoms stopped. It is currently not known what role each of these vitamins or the combination of the two had in her symptoms.
GRAS Affirmation: Yes
Generally recognized as safe (GRAS) is an American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) designation that a chemical or substance added to food is considered safe by experts, and so is exempted from the usual Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) food additive tolerance requirements. D-Biotin is considered safe.
- Infants 0 – 12 months: 7 micrograms per day (mcg/day)
- 1 to 3 years old: 8 mcg/day
- 4 to 8 years old: 12 mcg/day
- 9 to 13 years old: 20 mcg/day
- 14 to 18 years old: 25 mcg/day
- 18 and over, pregnant women: 30 mcg/day
- Breastfeeding women: 35 mcg/day
Special Populations Precaution
There is a lot of concern about diet and nutrition for these population, like Newborns, children, pregnant, sensitive to D-Biotin populations. Better consult to your doctor if you would like to intake D-Biotin.
1. Why 1-NH and 3-NH protons of D-biotin exhibit different activities in aqueous solution. [J Phys Chem B. 2008 Jul 24] Author: Zhang L, Hu X, Li H.
2. Detection of carbonyl-modified proteins in interfibrillar rat mitochondria using N’-aminooxymethylcarbonylhydrazino-D-biotin as an aldehyde/keto-reactive probe in combination with Western blot analysis and tandem mass spectrometry. [Electrophoresis. 2008 Mar] Author: Chung WG, Miranda CL, Maier CS.
3. New role for an old probe: affinity labeling of oxylipid protein conjugates by N’-aminooxymethylcarbonylhydrazino d-biotin. [Anal Chem. 2006 Oct 1] Author: Chavez J, Wu J, Han B, Chung WG, Maier CS.
4. Synthetic studies on d-biotin, part 9. An improved asymmetric synthetic route to d-biotin via Hoffmann-Roche lactone-thiolactone approach. [Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2005 Jul] Author: Chen FE, Jia HQ, Chen XX, Dai HF, Xie B, Kuang YY, Zhao JF.
5. A switch of reactivity profile in ionic intramolecular annulation reactions: a short and efficient synthesis of D-+-biotin. [J Org Chem. 2001 Sep 7] Author: Chavan SP, Tejwani RB, Ravindranathan T.