Fumaric Acid Side Effects

Fumaric Acid E297 is often used as an acidulant and acidity regulator in beverages, pudding mixes, etc. Though Fumaric Acid E297 is considered safe, some are convinced it has potentially dangerous health effects.

What Is Fumaric Acid E297?

Fumaric Acid E297 is a white, odorless crystalline powder or granules. It is soluble in alcohol, slightly soluble in water and in ether, and very slightly soluble in chloroform. Used as an acidulant, Fumaric acid has bacteriostatic and antiseptic function. It also can be used as acidity regulator, acidifier, thermal-oxidative resist auxiliary, curing accelerant and spice. Used as acidic substance of effervescent agent, it can produce extended and exquisite bubbles. Fumaric acid can be used as pharmaceutical intermediate and optical bleaching agent. In pharmaceutical industry, it is used to produce alexipharmic sodium dimercaptosuccinate and ferrous fumarate. Fumaric acid is also used in manufacturing unsaturated polyester resin.

Possible Side Effects of Fumaric Acid E297

Fumaric Acid is generally considered a safe ingredient. Possible long-term side effects: kidney problems (when used as a medicine)

GRAS Affirmation: Yes

Generally recognized as safe (GRAS) is an American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) designation that a chemical or substance added to food is considered safe by experts, and so is exempted from the usual Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) food additive tolerance requirements. Fumaric Acid E297 is considered safe by FDA.

Suggested Dosage


Special Populations Precaution

There is a lot of concern about diet and nutrition for these population, like Newborns, children, pregnant, sensitive to Hydrolyzed Pork Collagen populations. Better consult to your doctor if you would like to intake Fumaric Acid E297.


Related Research

1. Addition of an oral histamine antagonist to reduce adverse events associated with fumaric acid esters in the treatment of psoriasis: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. [Br J Dermatol. 2014 Jul 17] Author: Balak DM, Fallah-Arani S, Venema CM, Neumann HA, Thio HB.

2. The fumaric acid ester BG-12: a new option in MS therapy. [Expert Rev Neurother. 2013 Aug] Author: Lee DH, Stangel M, Gold R, Linker RA.

3. Treatment of psoriasis with non-registered fumaric acid esters in The Netherlands: a nationwide survey among Dutch dermatologists. [J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2014 Jul] Author: Fallah Arani S, Balak DM, Neumann HA, Kuipers MV, Thio HB.

4. Effectiveness and safety of fumaric acid esters in children with psoriasis: a retrospective analysis of 14 patients from The Netherlands. [Br J Dermatol. 2013 Jun] Author: Balak DM, Oostveen AM, Bousema MT, Venema AW, Arnold WP, Seyger MM, Thio HB.

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